CO₂ can be transformed into a variety of chemicals and fuels that have commercial value. But this requires significant
carbon-free/neutral energy (in the form of heat and/or electricity), which can often be the dominant cost, beyond our most optimistic estimate to decarbonize the electricity sector.
Clean energy solutions are needed to reduce the cost of delivered electricity with a target range below 3 cents/kWh. Fortunately, distributed electricity generation from intermittent sources such as wind and solar are increasingly reaching this range, but it needs to be coupled with a reliable and flexible zero-carbon distributed natural gas power generation.